It can be especially difficult for people involved in a dysfunctional family to realize and clearly see their family's dysfunctional characteristics. Dysfunctions manifest in many forms and various degrees. This variety adds a layer of complication to confidently identifying family characteristics that are dysfunctional in one's own family. All families have problems, but some families have "dysfunctions," which can be defined as "abnormal or unhealthy interpersonal behavior[s] or interaction[s] within a group." In this case, the group is the family.
Abuse is one of the easiest-to-spot signs of dysfunction in a family, and unfortunately, it's also one of the most common. Abuse can come in many forms: physical abuse, sexual abuse, and even emotional or verbal abuse. Physical, sexual, and verbal abuse is usually the most obvious. One member of the family may hit another family member (physical abuse), make undesired sexual advances (sexual abuse), or call another family member names (verbal abuse). Emotional abuse can be more difficult to see because it involves manipulation and deception that may or may not be easily detectable. The family member who is the subject of emotional abuse must consider how they're affected by the actions and words; emotional abuse may be best identified with a qualified therapist's help.
The first thing to do when a person recognizes abuse within a family is to seek help and assistance. It can be unclear what to do in an abusive situation, so finding someone to help and provide support is vital. If the victim of the abuse believes that their life is in danger, they should make a safe plan to leave their home to go to a trusted person's home or an abused person's shelter so that they can safely get assistance. After leaving the abusive situation, the person should seek professional help from the authorities and qualified trauma specialists.
In a dysfunctional family, fear characterizes the relationships between members of the family. This fear usually stems from some abuse, although it can also come from other unhealthy family characteristics discussed below. Unpredictable behavior from one or more family members may also be the cause of fear for other family members. In healthy family relationships, no family member should feel truly afraid of another, so fear is an important dysfunctional family characteristic to be aware of.
To resolve this fear, it's important first to identify where the fear comes from. Does the fear originate from unpredictable abuse? Or does it originate from a lack of privacy or feelings that love may not be returned reliably? Recognizing where the fear comes from can help a person understand the dysfunction better, ultimately leading to making a final decision about what they need to do to protect themselves and how they can support their general well-being.
Having boundaries that are too high or too low is one of the most frequently spotted signs of dysfunction. This characteristic may manifest as a minor dysfunction or as a major one. Still, if it interferes with a person's daily functioning or ability to feel safe and comfortable in the home and with family, then the issue of unhealthy boundaries must be acknowledged and addressed.
If within a family the desire for privacy is forbidden or viewed by one or more family members as an inconsiderate desire, there are likely some unhealthy boundaries. Privacy and independence are normal in healthy families. Although different families may have higher or lower boundaries, conversations about the need specifically for privacy and independence (or the need for more affection and closeness) should be open. In contrast, too high boundaries could involve problems such as not discussing certain subjects without angering one or more family members. If a family member faces this dysfunctional characteristic, family therapy may help remedy the situation for all parties involved.
4. Conditions on Love
In terms of family characteristics that can be dysfunctional, this one can be extremely uncomfortable and difficult to understand. Conditional love (as opposed to unconditional love) is a love that has "conditions." In other words, love only exists when certain prerequisites are met. A mother may love her son, but when he behaves badly or does something in direct opposition to her, she may revoke the love and respond negatively or even hateful towards her child. This is conditional love. The son has the mother's love as long as he does exactly what she says, but if he goes against her, she behaves (and may even feel) as though she "doesn't love him anymore."
Conditional love can occur between any arrangement of people in the family, not just between parents and children. It can occur between siblings, spouses, and even more distant relations such as cousins. If a feeling of being unloved or unwanted arises whenever a disagreement occurs, it may sign conditional love. Conditional love is frequently coupled with some form of abuse, whether physical, emotional, sexual, or verbal, so this is crucial to keep in mind when identifying if there are conditions on love.
When this dysfunctional family characteristic is identified, the first thing to do is to observe themselves to see if they're participating in conditional love. If they observe themselves doing conditional love behaviors, a good first step would be to identify behavioral changes that they can make to change different events. If the other family member agrees to it, therapy is an excellent choice for working toward a resolution.
Addiction is a necessary entry on this list of signs of dysfunction in a family because it frequently leads to other behavioral manifestations of dysfunction. Drug addiction and alcohol addiction can lead to serious unhealthy family characteristics and are in themselves dysfunctions. Still, other addictions to gambling, pornography, technology, or other mediums can cause similar dysfunctions as those mentioned in this list. One (or more) family member's addiction causes stress in the family and increases abuse risk. This is why addiction is one of the most serious signs of dysfunction in a family.
If a family member has an addiction, other family members could decide to stage an intervention to encourage the addict to go to a rehabilitation center or get help in some other way. Addiction can only be broken through the will of the addict himself, but the addict must first realize that he needs help to overcome his addiction. If the addict does not consent to receive treatment, other family members in the role of "enabler" or "victim" (or both) must consider the possibility of not having dealings with the addicted family member to protect him and others. A trained therapist or interventionist can assist concerned family members with finding a suitable path.
6. Criticism and Perfectionism
Criticism and perfectionism are two other two signs of dysfunction that are intimately intertwined. When one person in the family does or creates something that is "less than perfect" or somehow not adequate for another family member, other family members may use harsh criticism and judgment. In this way, the expectation of total perfection leads to severe judgment. The criticism may involve verbal abuse or even different or more than one form of abuse. After or during the criticism, love withdrawal may occur if the other family member is inclined toward practicing conditional love. Thus, multiple family characteristics that are dysfunctional can spring out of this one root dysfunction.
The first step in managing severe criticism or ardent perfectionism is to become self-aware. The person who is the target of these must learn to understand themselves and what they're doing. Every situation is different, so focusing on oneself and one's actions and behaviors is the best place to start. Remember, abuse is not the fault of the victim. If it seems appropriate for the situation, individual or family therapy can help overcome this dysfunction.
What to Do if Your Family Exhibits Family Characteristics That May Be Dysfunctional
There are two things that a person can do if they realize that they're in the middle of a dysfunctional family dynamic. The first thing they can do is tune into themselves and their own behavior. If they notice things about themselves that they want to change (maybe they're highly judgmental of some family members, for example), the person can consider the behavior they'd like to exhibit instead (perhaps the person will decide that they want to be supportive and encouraging instead of judgmental). This will help the victim realign their own position in the family and understand the dynamic better.
The most important thing to do, however, is to get help. Dysfunction is almost always a multilayered problem, so getting the assistance of a trained family therapist can help family members discover themselves as they are and encourage them to make necessary changes. Individual therapy may be the best choice at first if other family members don't wish to partake in family therapy sessions. However, no matter the situation, finding support is crucial to resolving or breaking free from family dysfunctions.
Dysfunctional family characteristics can sometimes be quite visible, but other times they're deceptively hard to see. Many dysfunctions lead to others, so it's not difficult to understand why family members need outside help to understand the situation and begin the resolution process completely. Individuals outside of the family dynamic are most likely to see the issues, so soliciting a therapist's help is essential for the family to find peace and health.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
There are several common characteristics of dysfunctional families. The first is poor communication. In dysfunctional families, poor or ineffective communication could mean constantly yelling, or it could mean barely speaking to each other at all. It could also refer to communicating in manipulative or otherwise unhealthy ways. For example, a dysfunctional parent may verbally abuse their children by calling them names or harshly criticizing them. Another one of the characteristics of dysfunctional families is the comparison of the children to each other. Children raised in a dysfunctional family tend to have higher levels of anxiety and be very hard on themselves.
Power struggles, excessive criticism, conditional love, substance misuse, and excessive expectations are common characteristics of dysfunctional families. Being raised in a dysfunctional family environment by dysfunctional parents can, unfortunately, have lasting effects. Children from dysfunctional families are more likely to develop certain unhealthy traits as they grow up. These include being a people-pleaser, constantly feeling guilty, having poor communication skills, and feeling empty and isolated. Luckily, many resources, such as therapy, can help those who grew up with a dysfunctional parent or in dysfunctional families.
Many different circumstances can cause dysfunctional family relationships. The causes of dysfunctional families are not the same as the common characteristics of dysfunctional families. First, if a parent or both parents struggles with any addiction or substance misuse, that in itself can lead to a dysfunctional family. A parent who must always feel in control or fear that their children will eventually not need them anymore may act in ways that result in family dysfunction.
Another cause of dysfunctional families is finances, which can induce stress and lead parents to act in more of a dysfunctional parent style. Abuse, violence or the threat of violence, and an environment of fear and intimidation can contribute to dysfunctional families as well. These types of situations are very likely to impact all family members, especially the children, negatively. Poor communication, a lack of emotional support, excessive criticism, perfectionism, and possessiveness can all play a role in creating dysfunctional family relationships.
Dysfunctional behavior can mean many different things. Generally, it refers to statistically rare behaviors. One example is dramatic mood swings, such as when a person feels giddy and on top of the world one minute but angry the next, seemingly without provocation. Another example is a person having a conversation with others who are not actually there. Dysfunctional behavior is usually a sign of an underlying mental disorder. As a concept, dysfunctional behavior differs from the concept of a dysfunctional family or dysfunctional parent.
A family is functional if it works for all family members and maintains a healthy family environment. This means that all family members must feel appreciated, recognized, valued, and loved. On the other hand, dysfunctional families function abnormally or inadequately. It’s important to realize that functionality and dysfunctionality exist on a continuum; a family might be well-functioning most of the time but deal with a specific issue in a dysfunctional way. Families should have a goal of remaining well-functioning as much as possible.
A healthy and functional family has several important characteristics. Effective and respectful communication is first on the list, followed by acceptance of each family member’s differences and individuality. Collaboration, involvement, and healthy coping skills used by the entire family are a few more healthy and functional family traits.
On the other hand, a dysfunctional family's traits are pretty much exactly the opposite of those of a healthy family. In dysfunctional families, ineffective communication and refusal to accept differences between dysfunctional family members are clear signs that the family is unhealthy or even toxic. Dysfunctional parents will typically not make an effort to collaborate or be involved with other dysfunctional family members. Children who are raised in a dysfunctional family often experience lasting negative effects and develop unhealthy coping strategies.
There are multiple types of family structures. The nuclear family consists of two parents and their children. Meanwhile, a single-parent family is a single mom or dad raising the kids on their own. An extended family structure is made up of two or more adults living in the same home, and often many extended family members will all live together.
A childless family is two partners without children, while a step-family or blended family consists of two families coming together as one unit through marriage. Adoptive families or foster families are often made up of one or two parents, their biological children, and their foster or adoptive children. Finally, a grandparent family is made up of grandparents and the grandchildren they are raising.